JSON Request API

The JSON Request API allows a JSON body to be passed for the entire search request.

The JSON Facet API is part of the JSON Request API, and allows specification of faceted analytics in JSON.

Here’s an example of a search request using query parameters only:

curl "http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query?q=memory&fq=inStock:true"

The same request when passed as JSON in the body:

curl

curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
  "query" : "memory",
  "filter" : "inStock:true"
}'

SolrJ

Unresolved directive in json-request-api.adoc - include::../../solrj/src/test/org/apache/solr/client/ref_guide_examples/JsonRequestApiTest.java[tag=solrj-json-query-simple]

Passing JSON via Request Parameter

It may sometimes be more convenient to pass the JSON body as a request parameter rather than in the actual body of the HTTP request. Solr treats a json parameter the same as a JSON body.

curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d 'json={"query":"memory"}'

Smart Merging of Multiple JSON Parameters

Multiple json parameters in a single request are merged before being interpreted.

  • Single-valued elements are overwritten by the last value.

  • Multi-valued elements like fields and filter are appended.

  • Parameters of the form json.<path>=<json_value> are merged in the appropriate place in the hierarchy. For example a json.facet parameter is the same as facet within the JSON body.

  • A JSON body, or straight json parameters are always parsed first, meaning that other request parameters come after, and overwrite single valued elements.

Smart merging gives the best of both worlds…the structure of JSON with the ability to selectively separate out / decompose parts of the request!

Simple Example

curl 'http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query?json.limit=5&json.filter="cat:electronics"' -d '
{
  query: "memory",
  limit: 10,
  filter: "inStock:true"
}'

Is equivalent to:

curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
  query: "memory",
  limit: 5,     // this single-valued parameter was overwritten.
  filter: ["inStock:true","cat:electronics"]    // this multi-valued parameter was appended to.
}'

Facet Example

In fact, you don’t even need to start with a JSON body for smart merging to be very useful. Consider the following request composed entirely of request params:

curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d 'q=*:*&rows=1&
  json.facet.avg_price="avg(price)"&
  json.facet.top_cats={type:terms,field:"cat",limit:5}'

That is equivalent to having the following JSON body or json parameter:

{
  "facet": {
    "avg_price": "avg(price)",
    "top_cats": {
      "type": "terms",
      "field": "cat",
      "limit": 5
    }
  }
}

See the JSON Facet API for more on faceting and analytics commands in specified in JSON.

Debugging

If you want to see what your merged/parsed JSON looks like, you can turn on debugging (debug=timing), and it will come back under the "json" key along with the other debugging information. Note: debug=true as well as debugQuery=true might have too much performance implication and debug=query makes no effect on JSON facet in SolrCloud.

Passing Parameters via JSON

We can also pass normal query request parameters in the JSON body within the params block:

curl

curl "http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query?fl=name,price"-d '
{
  params: {
    q: "memory",
    rows: 1
  }
}'

SolrJ

Unresolved directive in json-request-api.adoc - include::../../solrj/src/test/org/apache/solr/client/ref_guide_examples/JsonRequestApiTest.java[tag=solrj-json-query-params-block]

Which is equivalent to:

curl "http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query?fl=name,price&q=memory&rows=1"

Parameters Mapping

Right now only some standard query parameters have JSON equivalents. Unmapped parameters can be passed through request parameters or params block as shown above.

Table 1. Standard query parameters to JSON field
Query parameters JSON field equivalent

q

query

fq

filter

start

offset

rows

limit

fl

fields

sort

sort

json.facet

facet

json.<param_name>

<param_name>

Error Detection

Because we didn’t pollute the root body of the JSON request with the normal Solr request parameters (they are all contained in the params block), we now have the ability to validate requests and return an error for unknown JSON keys.

curl http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query -d '
{
  query : "memory",
  fulter : "inStock:true"  // oops, we misspelled "filter"
}'

And we get an error back containing the error string:

"Unknown top-level key in JSON request : fulter"

Parameter Substitution / Macro Expansion

Of course request templating via parameter substitution works fully with JSON request bodies or parameters as well. For example:

curl

curl "http://localhost:8983/solr/techproducts/query?FIELD=text&TERM=memory" -d '
{
  query:"${FIELD}:${TERM}",
}'

SolrJ

Unresolved directive in json-request-api.adoc - include::../../solrj/src/test/org/apache/solr/client/ref_guide_examples/JsonRequestApiTest.java[tag=solrj-json-query-macro-expansion]